If I Work While Receiving Social Security, Will my Benefit be Reduced?

If you are under full retirement age, there is a $1 loss in benefits for every $2 earned in excess of a threshold ($16,920 in 2017) that is adjusted for inflation every year. A modified test applies for the year an individual reaches full retirement age.

If earnings for the months prior to reaching full retirement age are $44,880 or more (2017 figure), one dollar in benefits will be withheld for every $3 in earnings above the limit. Starting with …

How do Spousal IRAs Work?

Spousal IRAs are a type of individual retirement account designed for married couples where one spouse is not employed. The working spouse may contribute up to $5,500 per year (2017 figure) to an IRA, in the name of the non-working spouse, and up to $5,500 per year to his or her own IRA. As a result, a couple may contribute 100% of their income up to a total of $11,000 per year (2017 figure).

In addition, if you are age …

When Can Someone Withdraw Money from a Roth IRA Without Owing Income Taxes?

You can withdraw money that you have contributed to a Roth IRA (i.e., your own money) at any time because the account was funded with after-tax dollars on which income taxes were already paid.

You can withdraw the earnings from a Roth IRA tax free in the following situations:

1. You have reached the age of 59½, and at least five years have passed since your Roth IRA account was opened. Earnings can be withdrawn tax-free beginning on the first …

How Long Do You Need to Work to Receive Social Security Retirement Benefits?

To qualify for Social Security retirement benefits, you must generally have “40 quarters of coverage.” This means that you must have been working for 10 years and earning at least the minimum income (adjusted annually for inflation) required to receive a quarter of coverage.

For example, in 2017, you can receive one quarter of coverage for each $1,300 of earnings, up to the maximum of four quarters of credit per year. Thus, the maximum amount of income needed to earn …

Impact of Health on Financial Security of Older Americans

Kim, H. & Lyons, A. C. (2008). No Pain, No Strain: Impact of Health on the Financial Security of Older Americans. The Journal of Consumer Affairs; Spring 2008, 42(1), 9-36.

Brief Description: This study investigated the impact that new and existing health problems have on the financial strain of older Americans. Health problems significantly increased the likelihood of financial strain for older individuals, but the effects varied by the measure of financial strain used and how health status is …

Managing a Retirement Portfolio: Do Annuities Provide More Safety?

Spitzer, J.J. (2009). Managing a retirement portfolio: Do annuities provide more safety? Journal of Financial Counseling and Planning Education, 20(1), 58-69.

Brief Description:  One of the biggest concerns of retirees is the risk of outliving their assets. This study used a technique called “bootstrap simulations” to estimate the probability of someone outliving a retirement portfolio as increasing proportions of a tax-deferred account are annuitized. It also examined the sizes of the portfolio balance as the annuity amount increased. Required …

What is a Roth 401(k)?

A Roth 401(k) is retirement savings option that became available in 2006. With Roth 401(k)s, companies can add an option to their 401(k) plan that enables employees to make after-tax contributions. The contribution limit for a Roth 401(k) is the same as the contribution limit for a regular 401(k). In 2017, the limit is $18,000 plus an extra $6,000 “catch up” amount for those who will be age 50 or older by the end of the year ($24,000 total).

If …

A Framework for Promoting Retirement Savings

Wiener, J. & Doescher, T. (2008). A Framework for Promoting Retirement Savings, The Journal of Consumer Affairs, 42 (2), 137-164.

Brief description: This paper identifies the constructs that influence an individual’s intention to save for retirement. It discusses how and when these factors can be changed by an agent trying to induce an individual to enroll in a retirement plan, increase his or her contribution to a plan, or purchase a particular retirement product. A broad array of psychological theories …

Assessing Farm Households’ Investment Education Needs

 

O’Neill, B., Porter, N. M., Pankow, D., Schuchardt, J. & Johnson, J. (2010). Online investment education: Listening to learners to develop an effective financial literacy program for farm households. Journal of Financial Counseling and Planning Education, 21 (1), pp. 25-42.

Brief Description:  Quantitative and qualitative data were collected from farm households to better understand their investment attitudes, practices, and learning preferences in order to adapt an online investment course for their needs. Researchers found that farmers are a distinct audience …