KEEPING A ROOF OVERHEAD
Keeping a roof overhead is an important concern
when your income drops. If you rank your bills in
order of priority, chances are housing is at or near
the top of the list.
When you are under the financial stress of reduced
or lost income, one of the biggest expenses is
housing. Housing expenses include mortgage or
rent payments, insurance, taxes, household
maintenance and repair, utility bills, furnishings,
and cleaning supplies.
When income drops, careful planning can help you
avoid eviction from your rental unit or the loss of
If you rent, tell your landlord about your situation
before rent is due. Ask for a temporary
postponement until your income resumes. Offer to
provide some service, such as painting, in exchange
for rent. Suggest making smaller payments for a
month or two, with the understanding that you will
catch up when your income increases again. Often
it costs money for a landlord to change tenants so
they may be willing to work with you.
Laws regarding failure to pay rent on time vary among states. It is important to know the laws in your state. If you think your loss of income will continue for more than a few months, you may have to consider moving to lower cost rental housing.
With reduced or lost income, you quickly feel the
stress of a sizable mortgage payment on your
finances. If your loss of income will only be for a few months,
you may be able to cut back on other expenses and
continue to meet your mortgage payments. Read Sizing Up Your Financial Situation, Controlling Spending, and Meeting Your Insurance Needs for more information.)
Important: If you miss a mortgage payment,
you have defaulted on your contract and your
lender can begin foreclosure on your home.
If meeting your mortgage payment appears
impossible, contact your lender immediately before
you miss the first payment. You may be able to skip a payment or arrange a lower payment. Go in person and take along a new
spending plan that fits your reduced income.
Most lenders would rather avoid the time and cost
involved in a foreclosure if another alternative can
be worked out. If your loss of income is going to last a long time or
be permanent, you will need to consider other options. You do not have to live under the extreme
stress and strain of meeting mortgage payments that
are too high. Some options you have are:
- Taking in a boarder and using the money toward mortgage payments.
- Renting your house to someone else and renting less costly housing for yourself. (Check the affect this will have on taxes and changes needed on insurance coverage.)
- Selling your house and buying or renting less costly housing.
- Moving in with relatives or friends. Offer to share some of the housing costs.
- Deeding your house back to the lender. You may not lose much. For example, if you have been paying on a 30-year mortgage for 10 years, you have not paid for much of the house yet-only about 10 percent. If you choose deeding the house back to the lender in lieu of foreclosure, and the house has decreased in value, you are still responsible for the total amount of the loan and must pay the lender the difference. If by staying in this house you will not have enough money for food or other necessities, you may find it less stressful to leave the house and find less expensive housing.
Other Housing Costs: Insurance Payments
Homeowner’s or renter’s insurance protects you in case
of loss or damage to property. During times of reduced
income, it is important to have property insured. If
you can not make an insurance premium payment,
call or write your agent or the company. There may be
some leeway (10 to 30 day “grace period”) for a late
premium payment. Not paying insurance on your
mortgaged home is considered defaulting on the
Shopping around for property insurance from a lowerpriced,
licensed insurer can save you money.
Contact the agency in your state responsible for licensing insurance
companies and ask for a list showing typical prices
charged by different licensed companies. Then call at
least three of the lowest-priced insurers to learn what
they would charge you for the coverage you need.
Make sure you purchase enough coverage to replace
the house and contents. Make certain the new policy
is in effect before dropping the old one.
If your current company offers you the least expensive
coverage, go into the office and talk to your agent.
Explain your situation and discuss different payment
plans. Check the possibility of smaller premiums
- Changing to a monthly, quarterly, or semi-annual payment plan with the same coverage. There may be a service charge for making a smaller payment which is based on the amount of the payment. Check the total yearly amount difference and select the payment plan that will give you the most savings and still fit into your spending plan.
- Increasing the deductible.
- Installing safety/security alarm systems.
- Examining coverage on other buildings and structures on your property.
- Changing to a more basic coverage.
- Check for possible discounts if all insurance (house and auto) is with the same company.
Real Estate Taxes
If you are unable to pay taxes, contact your local
county treasurer or tax collector to learn about
procedures used when property taxes are delinquent.
Interest accumulates on unpaid taxes and you will
have to pay this interest or it becomes a lien on your
property just like the unpaid taxes. You will receive
notice of any actions taken as a result of nonpayment
of taxes. Take these notices seriously. Eventually,
unpaid taxes will result in the sale of your property
In counties that have been declared a major disaster
area by the President of the United States or the
Governor of the State, the supervisor of assessments, the board of review, or board of appeals may make a reassessment of any taxable real
property which was substantially damaged by the
disaster. Application for reassessment must be made
by the property owner.
Check on special programs in your state for homeowners to see if you qualify.
Utility cutoffs can occur for nonpayment. Disconnection varies with weather and family health
conditions. If you cannot make full payments on your utility bill:
- Contact the company right away – before the due date and before fuel is needed.
- Propose a new payment plan based on your current ability to pay. Take along information about your income and expenses when you go to your utility company.
- Explore a load management program or off-hour rate program to see if it would save you money and meet your needs.
- Ask your utility company to conduct an energy audit for free or for a reasonable charge. An audit can identify ways for you to save money on home heating and cooling.
- Check to see if any agencies operates a low income energy assistance program for which you might qualify.
- Talk with family members to decide how to safely reduce the use of your utilities to reduce costs. Health and safety considerations for family members are very important.
If you are unable to pay your phone bill on time, call
the phone number listed on the bill and explain the
problem. Unless you pay the bill or make other
arrangements with the company, you will receive a
Notice of Disconnection with the date your phone
service will stop if the bill is not paid.
If you pay the bill late, they might charge an extra
amount. If your phone is disconnected, you will have
to pay the bill plus interest on the unpaid balance
before your phone service is restored. You may be
allowed one free re-connection each year, otherwise
you will have to pay the cost for re-connection.
Cut phone expenses by eliminating all non-emergency
long distance calls or writing a letter instead. When
making necessary long distance calls, check when
rates are lowest and make your calls during those
hours. If you are paying for local telephone service
based on the calls you make, you can cut the cost by
limiting the number and/or length of the phone calls.
Consider buying rather than renting your phone,
returning all rented phones except one, or changing to
a less expensive type of phone service. Check your
local phone bill to see if you have optional services
you do not really need.
Cell phones and related service plans have become a
major budget item for many families. In times of
reduced income, consider dropping cell phone service
plans or reduce plan costs, for example reducing the
number of minutes in the plan, if additional charges
will not be incurred. Or consider removing residential
telephone service and relying totally on a cell phone
for communication to reduce total expenses.
If you have cable or satellite service, have the service
disconnected or choose only basic service. Remember,
there usually is a charge to reconnect your service.